A Facility-based Study of Preauricular Sinus Among Adults in Southwest Nigeria

  • OA Sogebi
  • EA Oyewole
Keywords: Abscess, Ear, Perceptions, PreauricularSinus, Pure Tone Audiometry, Tympanometry


Background: Preauricular sinus (PAS) is common among the blacks and it presents in different manners. The perceptions of adult patients with PAS may influence the management strategies deployed.

Objectives: To determine the perceptions of adult patients who have PAS about the disorder and describe the modalities of presentation.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at the ENT Clinics over nine months. Using a questionnaire, socio-demographic information, perception of patients on the cause, concerns, modality of treatment, inclination to surgery and perceived complications of surgery were explored. Examination findings of the sinuses, including results of audiological investigations were recorded.

Results: The prevalence of PAS was 7.4% (56/754) and the mean age of the subjects was 43.9±10.6 years. Multiple causes of PAS were perceived by 58.5% of the patients, 13.2% were not concerned but intermittent symptom was experienced by 43.3% of the patients. More than half (52.8%) believed the sinus could be treated medically with drugs, 86.8% perceived complications from surgical excision while 73.6% abhorred surgical excision.  Half of the PAS was in the left ear while 11.3% were bilateral. Audiological evaluation revealed 46.4% of patients had evidence of sensorineural hearing loss while 56.5% had abnormal middle ear functions.

Conclusions: Some adult patients had wrong perceptions of PAS and most patients abhorred surgical excision. The clinical presentations were mostly of the classical type, with almost two-thirds violated. There may be a need for genetic studies on PAS in future research.


Aliyu DJ, Mohammed A. Clinical peculiarities of preauricular sinus abscess: a tertiary health centre experience Int J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019; 5: 836-839. https://doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20192702

Zhou P, Chen JH, Huang T, Tao ZZ. Research progress of congenital preauricular fistula. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019; 33: 474-477. https://doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.1001-1781.2019.05.024

Huang XY, Tay GS, Wansaicheong GK, Low WK. Preauricular sinus: clinical course and associations. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 133: 65-68. https://doi.org/10.1001/archotol.133.1.65

Yeo SW, Jun BC, Park SN, Lee JH, Song CE, Chang KH, et al. The preauricular sinus: factors contributing to recurrence after surgery. Am J Otolaryngol 2006; 27: 396-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2006.03.008

Adedokun BO, Yusuf BO, Lasisi JT, Jinadu AA, Sunmonu MT, Ashanke AF, et al. Perception of genetic testing for deafness and factors associated with interest in genetic testing among deaf people in a selected population in sub-Saharan Africa. J Genet Couns 2015; 24: 1037-1043. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10897-015-9843-7

Manjunath HA, Santosh UP, Raman L, Nidhin SB. Supra-auricular approach in management of preauricular sinus. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020; 72: 153-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01719-6

Khardali MH, Han JS, Kim SI, Jin HJ, Lee SM, Han JJ, et al. Clinical efficacy of standard simple elliptical incision following drain-less and subcutaneous suture technique in preauricular sinus surgery. Am J Otolaryngol 2020; 41: 102465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102465

Isaacson G. Comprehensive management of infected preauricular sinuses/cysts. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019; 127: 109682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109682

Jimoh OR, Alabi BS, Adebayo SS. Prevalence of Preauricular Sinus among Nigerians. Surg J 2008; 3: 61-63.

Adegbiji WA, Alabi BS, Olajuyin OA, Nwawolo CC. Presentation of preauricular sinus and preauricular sinus abscess in southwest Nigeria. Int J Biomed Sci 2013; 9: 260-263.

Lasisi AO, Ajuwon AJ. Beliefs and perceptions of ear, nose and throat-related conditions among residents of a traditional community in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2002; 31: 45-48.

Aremu SK, Omotosho W. Preauricular Sinus-classic versus variant types among cross-section subjects in Southwestern Nigeria. JAMMR 2018; 27: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/JAMMR/2018/44017

Scheinfeld NS, Silverberg NB, Weinberg JM, Nozad V. The preauricular sinus: a review of its clinical presentation, treatment, and associations. Pediatr Dermatol 2004; 21):191-196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0736-8046.2004.21301

Sampath S, Keats BJ, Lacassie Y. HPPD: A newly recognized autosomal dominant disorder involving hypertelorism, preauricular sinus, punctal pits, and deafness mapping to chromosome 14q31. Am J Med Genet A 2011; 155A: 976-985. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33971

Das C, Khaowas A. Pre-auricular sinus with post-auricular extension: An uncommon variant. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019; 71: 1511-1514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01605-1

Kumari R, Jain RK, Chakraborty P, Pradhan S, Joshi P. Fistular opening below the intertragric notch: A rare variant of pre-auricular sinus. J Clin Diagn Res 2016; 10: MJ01-MJ02. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/18789.8434

Nagalingeswaran A, Kumar RD. Infra-auricular sinus: A very rare case presentation. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019; 71: 1502-1504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01636-8

Deshpande SA, Watson H. Renal ultrasonography not required in babies with isolated minor ear anomalies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006; 91: F29-F30. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.083329

Lee KY, Woo SY, Kim SW, Yang JE, Cho YS. The prevalence of preauricular sinus and associated factors in a nationwide population-based survey of South Korea. Otol Neurotol 2014; 35: 1835-1838. https://doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000000587

An SY, Choi HG, Lee JS, Kim JH, Yoo SW, Park B. Analysis of incidence and genetic predisposition of preauricular sinus. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014; 78: 2255-2257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.10.027

Tobih JE, Idowu JA, Olaosun AO, Fayanju AO, Adedeji TO. Prevalence of preauricular sinus in Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Southwest, Nigeria. J Rhinolaryngo-Otologies 2015; 3: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.12970/2308-7978.2015.03.013

Tan T, Constantidines H, Mitchell TE. The preauricular sinus: A review of its aetiology, clinical presentation and management. Int. J Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol 2005; 69: 1469-1474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2005.07.008

Mazita A, Zabri M, Aneeza WH, Asma A, Saim L. Cholesteatoma in patients with congenital external auditory canal anomalies: retrospective review. J Laryngol Otol 2011; 125: 1116-1120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022215111002052

Banakis Hartl RM, Said S, Mann SE. Bilateral ear canal cholesteatoma with underlying Type I first branchial cleft anomalies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2019; 128: 360-364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003489418821700

Jalil J, Basheer F, Shafique M. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014; 24: 367-368.

Sogebi OA, Olusoga-Peters OO, Oluwapelumi O. Clinical and audiometric features of presbycusis in Nigerians. Afr Health Sci 2013; 13: 886-892. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v13i4.4

Zhang CL, Li CL, Chen HQ, Sun Q, Liu ZH. First branchial cleft cyst accompanied by external auditory canal atresia and middle ear malformation: A case report. World J Clin Cases 2020; 8: 3616-3620. https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i16.3616

Wang RY, Earl DL, Ruder RO, Graham JM Jr. Syndromic ear anomalies and renal ultrasounds. Pediatrics 2001; 108: E32. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.108.2.e32

Original Research