Plasma Micronutrients (magnesium, zinc, selenium) Status and Lipid Profile in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterised by hyperglycemia with secondary derangements in micronutrient status. Various studies had given conflicting reports of increased or decreased levels of micronutrients in Type II DM.
Objective: To measure the plasma micronutrient levels and lipid profile in adults with Type II DM.
Method: Plasma magnesium, zinc and selenium levels were measured among 100 subjects comprising 50 people with DM (age range 36-70 years) and 50 control subjects without DM (age range 29-70 years). The anthropometric parameters were measured; fasting blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, micronutrients (magnesium, zinc and selenium) levels were also measured using standard methods.
Result: There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher plasma glucose, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), LDLC, and lower levels of plasma magnesium, zinc, selenium, HDLC levels among the patients with DM (cases) compared with the normal control subjects. No significant difference was observed in the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between the plasma levels of the trace metals (magnesium, zinc and selenium) and triglycerides (r = - 0.36, r = - 0.43, r = - 0.51 respectively).
Conclusion: Plasma levels of magnesium, zinc and selenium are reduced in Type II DM with associated hyperglycaemia-driven dyslipidaemia.
Steinbrenner H, Speckmann B, Pinto A, Sies H. High selenium intake and increased diabetes risk experimental evidence for interplay between selenium and carbohydrate metabolism. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2011; 48(1): 40-45.
Thomas B, Kumari S, Ramitha K, Kumari MBA. Comparative evaluation of micronutrient status in the serum of diabetes mellitus patients and healthy individuals with periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2010; 14(1): 46-49.
Odusan O. Role of trace metals in Diabetes and Hypertension. Niger Endocr Pract 2012; 6(2): 21-27.
Ruiz C, Alegria A, Barbera R, Farre R, Lagarda J. Selenium, zinc and copper in plasma of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in different metabolic control states. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1998; 12: 91-95.
Naila M, Ghulam HB, Rafi AG, IqbalAM, Muhammad AM, Muhammad SM. Serum Zinc and Magnesium in Type-2 Diabetic Patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2009; 19(8): 483-486.
Via M. The Malnutrition of Obesity: Micronutrient Deficiencies That Promote Diabetes-Review. ISRN Endocrinol 2012; 2012: 1-8.
Candilish DJ. Minerals. J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 17: 286-310.
Salem M, Kholoussi S, Κholoussi N, Fawzy R. Malondialdehyde and trace element levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Hellenic Med 2011; 28(1): 83-88.
Oyedeji SO, Adesina AA, Oke OT, Tijani YO. Evaluation of essential trace metals in female type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nigerian population. Afr J Biotechnol 2014; 13(18): 1910-1914.
D'Ocon C, Alonso de Armino V, Frasquet I. Levels of Zn and Cu in the serum of a diabetic population. Rev Esp Fisiol 1987; 43(3): 335-338.
Kadish AH, Little RI, Sternberg JC. A new and rapid method for the determination of glucose by measurement of rate of oxygen consumption. Clin Chem 1969; 14: 116-118.
Schettler G, Nussel E. Colorimetric determination of Cholesterol. Arh Med Soz Med Prav Med 1975; 10: 55.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18: 499-502.
Nagele U, Hagele EO, Sauer G. Reagent for enzymatic determination of serum total triglycerides with improved lypholytic efficiency. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1984; 22: 165-174.
Sniderman AD, Blank D, Zakarian R, Berjeron J, Frohlich J. Triglyceride and small dense LDL, the twin Achilles heels of the Friedwald formula. Clin Biochem 2003; 36(7): 499–504.
Zargar AH, Bashir MI, Masoodi SR, Laway BA, Wani AI, Khani AR, et al. Copper, zinc and magnesium levels in type-1 diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J 2002; 23: 539−542.
Tuvemo T, Gebre-Medhin M. The role of micronutrients in juvenile diabetes mellitus. Pediatrician 1983; 12: 213-219.
Shrivastava VK, Chauhan AK, Lahiri VL. The significance of serum magnesium in diabetes mellitus. Ind J Med Sci 1993; 47: 119-123.
American Heart Association. About high blood pressure”, Dallas, TX: information published online, accessed 22 June 2015.
Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin P. The Treatment of Hypertension in adult patients with Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(1): 134-147.
Lago RM, Singh PP, Nesto RW. Diabetes and hypertension. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2007; 3(10): 667.
Bell DS. Hypertension and diabetes: a toxic combination. Endocr Pract 2008; 14(8): 1031–1039.
Kalidhas P, Kanniyappan D, Gandhi K et al. Coronary artery disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes with metabolic syndrome in the urban south Indian population. J Clin Diag Res 2011; 5(3): 516-518.
Lichten LA, Cousins RJ. Mammalian zinc transporters: Nutritional and physiologic regulation. Annu Rev Nutr 2009; 29: 153−176.
Kljai K, Runje R. Selenium and glycogen levels in diabetic patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001; 83: 223−229.
Suarez Z. Decreased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of hypomagnesemic rats. Diabetologia 1993; 36(8): 82.
Resnick LM, Gupta RK, Bhargava KK, Gruenspan H, Alderman MH, Laragh JH. Cellular ions in hydertenson, diabetese, and obesity, a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. Hypertension 1991; 17: 951-957.
Steinbrenner H, Sies H. Protection against reactive oxygen species by seleno-protein. Biochem Biophys Acta 2009; 1790: 1478-1485.
Vogt TM, Ziegler RG, Graubard BI, Swanson CA, Greenberg RS, Schoenberg JB, et al. Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer in US blacks and whites. Int J Cancer 2003; 103: 664−670.
Kornhauser C, Garcia-Ramirez JR, Wrobel K, Pérez-Luque EL, Garay-Sevilla ME, Wrobel K et al. Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Prim Care Diabetes 2008; 2: 81−85.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.